Features of the guidance system of the anti-ship missile P-700 "Granit" 3M45 - SS-N-19 SHIPWRECK
History of development of the Granit missileThe missile system with an anti-ship cruise missile was developed since 1969 by the Central Design Bureau of Machine Building (TsKBM, formerly OKB-52, now - NPO Mashinostroyeniya, Reutov), the general designer V.N. Chelomey (since 1984 the general designer - G.A. Efremov). The main constructor of the system is V.Patrushev, since 1978 - V.A. Vishnyakov, since 2003, after the creation of the Directorate of the "Machine Building NGO" for the missile "Granit" - A.A.Malinin (2010 at least ). In 2012-2013 Chief Designer of "NPO Mashinostroeniya" in this directorate is Konstantin Danilov.
|Unloading of 3M45 Granit missiles from the "Kursk" project 949A submarine lifted after the disaster. You can see design of the starting acceleration system and the folding aerodynamic surfaces of the rocket.|
The development of the Granite missile was a continuation of the development of an underwater launch anti-ships missiles with a range of 400-600 km and a flight speed of 3200-3600 km / h, type P-500P (carrier - PLARK pr.688, project). Most reason was new air defence system of US Navy aircraft carriers by F-14 fighters with Phoenix missiles and multichannel radar. New missiles system was planned to strike at least 20 units by a group of anti-ship missiles to achieve a guaranteed defeat of an aircraft carrier strike group. According to the decision of the Military Industrial Committee under the Council of Ministers of the USSR of April 8, 1966, in the first quarter of 1967, OKB-52 was to submit a missile project under the updated requirements within the framework of the Granit research project. The elaboration of the advance design showed that the missile with the specified tactical and technical characteristics would be about 13 m in length and the solid propellant rocket engine would not be able to provide the required characteristics as a propulsion engine.
|Missile 3M45 / SS-N-19 SHIPWRECK of the Granit missiles complex in the museum "NPO Mashinostroenie", Reutov.|
Reserch work Granit provided for the creation of an anti-ship missile with an autonomous (without communication with the carrier) choice of the main target in the ship's order (for example, as part of an aircraft carrier strike group) and a universal launch - surface or underwater. The preliminary design of the complex was released in 1969 and approved in 1970. The full-scale development of the missile and the complex began in 1970.
|Missile 3M45 of the missiles complex Granit / SS-N-19 SHIPWREK. Red color designates the explosive-penetrating warhead|
The peculiarity of the developed missile was a combination of achievements in aerodynamics of supersonic flight, materials science, engine building, as well as in radio electronics and computer technology. By the end of the 1960s, the OKB-52 already had the experience of creating systems designed to destroy large surface ships and their formations and in fact preconditions existed for resolving the issue of the guaranteed defeat of an aircraft carrier strike group due to a massive and fully automated group missile strike.
Guided system of the Granit missilesThe missile inertial guidance system with an autopilot with correction working with the self-guidance system, which includes several computers (4 computers), an active radar homing head and an information exchange system between the missiles (SOIR system) of the salvo with several communication channels. The active radar homing head antenna is located in the central body of the engine's air intake. The missile control system and guidance equipment were developed by NII-49 (CRIIT "Granit"). Production of on-board equipment of the control system was began at the pilot plant of the NII-49 / NPO Granit (OAO Severny Press now).
The computer system include 4 computers/ First and second computers ran the program in parallel (processing information from primary converters), the third computer was an "arbitrator" - compared the results of calculations, with mismatch testing was performed and the faulty conputer was turned off. With the addition of the fourth computer, cyclic testing of three operating computers was conducted.
|Missile 3M45 Granit - SS-N-19 SHIPWRECK (c) Dmitry Kornev, MilitaryRussia.Ru|
In the missile guidance algorithms was realized the logic of selecting the main target in the ship's order. The size of the targets and the removal of targets from the point of expected target coordinates were analyzed. Such an algorithm made it possible to select the largest target in the ship's order. Also they said that guidance system had in her maind images of all general aims and groups of ships. Later, a similar algorithm was used on the Vulcan anti-ship missile.
In case of group of missiles, after the detection of the target with the missile radar (radio-location sighting), the target distribution is achieved using the SOIR-system according to the target type introduced at the start-up. After determining the coordinates of the targets assigned to the target distribution and their movement parameters, the missile with the radar turned off decreases to a low altitude and makes a flight to the point of the supposed target coordinates. When approaching the point of assumed coordinates, the radar target (target) is activated and the target is captured. Each missile goes to its goal according to the previously conducted target distribution on an individual trajectory with the possibility of speed maneuvering, which allows striking a protected target simultaneously with several missiles from different directions.
The distribution of targets between the salvo rockets is carried out using the information exchange system between the rockets (SOIR) on several algorithms, created using the theory of games in the Central Research Institute "Granite". Through SOIR was the exchange of radar homing heads of missiles, coordinated the strike order of the missiles, depending on the scheme of strike. The control system of the complex on the side of the carrier makes it possible to carry out salvo firing with all loaded missiles.
Several typical flight trajectories:
• over surface ships - high and low altitude trajectories;
• onshore targets - altitude trajectory;
• on submarines - low-altitude trajectory (using nuclear warheads).
The target seeking for the complex made by carrier, either by means of an aviation or space targeting system. The aviation complex for designation "Uspekh" ("Success") was used with the use of aircrafts Tu-95RC or Ka-25C helicopters. The space complex for reconnaissance and targeting of the "Legend" was created with the direct participation of Academician Keldysh at the stage of theoretical elaboration.
Also missile 3M45 Granit was equipped with a electronic defense system developed since 1965 in the laboratory of the department of the 25th CRIIT "Granit". The main component of this system was the station for generating active jamming 3B47 "Quartz" developed at the Taganrog Research Institute of Communications. The missile can perform anti-ship maneuvers.
|Launch of the Granit missile from the Pyotr Veliky missile cruiser project 11442.|